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  • - Maryanne Stroud Gabbani
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    RE: [RC] Re. B.C.A.A. Complex - Bob Morris

    Hey Rob;
    Have you ever ridden a horse?
    Bob Morris
    Morris Endurance Enterprises
    Boise, ID
    -----Original Message-----
    From: ridecamp-owner@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    [mailto:ridecamp-owner@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx]On Behalf Of Rob
    Sent: Saturday, June 29, 2002 3:00 PM
    To: ridecamp; Scott
    Subject: [RC] Re. B.C.A.A. Complex
    There's more to electrolytes than salt (NaCl). Which is
    actually the
    cation Na+ with the anion Cl- attached to it. Electrolytes
    are broken
    down into two groups. Cations and Anions. Here's a list of
    Cations: Na+, K+, Ca++, and Mg++. The Anions are: Cl-,
    HPO4-2/H2PO4-, SO4-2, Organic acids, and protein (as anion)
    plasma concentration is around 16 mEq/L. This is a portion
    of a group of
    compounds referred to as major solutes.  Then there's the
    Hydrogen ion
    H+, and pH. And the Non-electrolytes: Protein, with sub
    group Albumin,
    and Globulins, Fibrinogen, and Glucose. And finally the
    blood gasses
    pO2, and pCO2.
    All of the above compounds are related to, and affected by
    the balance
    of body water. There are three major fluid compartments in
    which fluids
    containing these elements. Plasma,  Interstital fluid (fluid
    cellular structures), and Intracellular fluid (fluid within
    the cells).
    Water balance is governed by by intake of fluids or food
    water, as well as by the generation of water due to
    metabolism of
    proteins, fats, and carbohydrates (which amounts to about
    versus loss through the urine, feces, respiratory tract, and
    skin (up to
    12L/hour for a working horse on a hot day).
    Drinking is controlled by thirst, which in turn is induced
    mainly by
    plasma hypertonicity or a contracted extracellular fluid
    although several other mechanisms may be involved. If plasma
    hypertonic because of water loss , osmoreceptors in the
    nucleus are stimulated to release antidiuretic hormone or
    from the neurohypophysis. ADH increases the permeability of
    the distal
    renal tubules to water only, so that the water that is then
    reduces ECF tonicity. ADH release also occurs via neural
    pathways when
    ECF volume is markedly reduced due to dehydration or
    hemorrhage. Another
    critical response to hypovolemia (reduction of blood volume)
    activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This
    response is
    initiated by volume receptors in the renal juxtaglomerular
    through which renin is released. Renin (an enzyme) promotes
    formation of angiotensin I in the plasma, which in turn is
    converted to
    angiotensin II in the lungs. Angiotensin II results in the
    release of
    aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone promotes
    reabsorption of sodium (Na+) from the distal renal tubes in
    exchange for
    potassium (K+) and hydrogen (H+) which are then excreted. As
    becomes hypertonic due to increasing sodium levels, ADH is
    released and
    water retention is facilitated.
    Angiotensin II is also an active vasoconstrictor, which is
    fine if your
    horse is bleeding but not good if it's being made to travel
    at 22 KPH
    with 20% of it's body weight upon it's back in a dehydrated
    Vasoconstriction results in the decrease of blood flow,
    which in turn
    decreases nutrients being carried to working muscles, as
    well as a
    decrease in the removal of some metabolic byproducts that
    are harmful to
    muscle tissue. Feeding salt to an animal already
    experiencing excessive
    hypotonic fluid loss can lead to hypernatremia which can
    manifest itself
    as dry mucous membranes, constipation, (impaction colic)
    (Abnormally high fever) muscle tremors, and in advanced
    The electrolytes that need to be replaced are the ones that
    excreted. Salt, or I should say the components of salt, Na+
    and Cl- are
    rarely found to be deficient. More often times Na+ and Cl-
    are found to
    be too high. This is caused by people with your line of
    thinking that
    salt is electrolytes. Salt contains some electrolytes and
    those it
    contains aren't lost in the amounts that potassium (K+) is.
    Which is
    vital for good pulse recovery times, and proper cardiac
    rhythms. And
    magnesium (Mg++), and Calcium (Ca++) which are required for
    The topic of electrolytes gets even more complex as you get
    into the
    electrical aspect of it. Take for instance chloride balance.
    (Cl-) is the major extracellular anion (103-110 mEq/L). It
    is ingested
    with food and drinking water and is freely absorbed from the
    GI tract.
    Although chloride readily follows the cationic Na+ in a
    passive fashion
    when diffusion occurs across cellular membranes, in certain
    select sites
    such as the ascending loop of Henle, a specialized carrier
    system for Cl- is present and in these cases it is Na+ that
    passively. Cl- is present in most secretions with Na+ except
    in gastric
    juice in which Cl- and H+ are responsible for the acidity.
    In the ECF,
    Cl- and bicarbonate (HCO3-) are inversely related to one
    another. For
    example, with a constant plasma anion gap (made up of
    organic acids,
    phosphates, sulfate and protein), if Cl- decreases, HCO3-
    will increase
    proportionately, and vice versa. Depending on the body's
    need for HCO3-,
    more or less Cl- is excreted in the urine as the ammonium
    salt. This
    permits Na+ exchange for H+ since the tubule secretes
    ammonia and H+
    into the lumen, and in exchange Na+ and HCO3- return to the
    plasma. The
    regulation of Cl- concentration in the ECF is directly but
    related to Na+ concentration (all body fluids are
    electrically neutral).
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